• 1.What is luminescence?

    Luminescence is a general term for the emission of electromagnetic radiation at a different wavelength than that at which it is absorbed. Luminescence in particular refers to emission from a relatively low-temperature source. The word "luminescence" actually refers to "cold light", and the term was originally used to refer to bodies that imitted light at low temperatures, in comparison with incandescence or thermal radiation for bodies at high temperatures.

  • 2.What is photoluminescence?

    Photoluminescence is the emission of light from a material under optical excitation. Absorption of visible or UV radiation raises molecule to an excited state. Electron absorbs quantum of energy and jumps to a higher energy orbital. When electron drops back to the ground state, excitation energy can be liberated by

  • 3.What is Fluorescence?

    Fluorescence is a luminescence, i.e. optical phenomenon in cold bodies, in which a molecule absorbs a high-energy photon, and re-emits it as a lower-energy (longer-wavelength) photon. The energy difference between the absorbed and emitted photons ends up as molecular vibrations (heat). Usually the absorbed photon is in the ultraviolet, and the emitted light (luminescence) is in the visible range, but this depends on the absorbance curve and Stokes shift of the particular fluorophore. Fluorescence is named after the mineral flurite (calcium fluoride), which exhibits this phenomenon.

  • 4.Fluorescence vs Phosphorescence

    Usually re-emission of radiation, if it occurs, is within nanoseconds (10-9 sec)of the excitation= FLUORESCENCE. PHOSPHORESCENCE is a much slower (and rarer) process. After source of excitation radiation is switched off, phosphorescence emission continues for periods that vary from milliseconds to weeks. Phosphorescence is caused by electron becoming transferred into a triplet state. (Electrons of the same spin in the one orbital). Triplet states have long lifetime so phosphoresence persists. Mostly requires low temperatures (<<0oC) - at higher T, triplet state is de-activated by quenching.

  • 5.what is Refractive Index

    The refractive coefficient of glass bead to light. They are divided into series of 1.5Nd, 1.9Nd,2.2Nd. Nd is the unit of refractive index

  • 6.what is Roundness Ratio

    The percentage of round glass beads with total glass beads. The higher the value, the better the quality.

  • 7.what is glass bead Opacity

    The percentage of nontransparent glass bead with total glass bead. the nontransparent glass bead has bad reflective brightness. So, The lower value, the better quality.

  • 8.Retro-reflection Meaning

    When light illuminates surfaces and returns its source, it will be retro-reflection. When the objects have more than 1.9Nd refractive index, there will be formed retro-reflection

  • 9.“Encapsulated-Lens” type retro-reflective articles

    A cover film disposed in front of the glass bead, and on the front of the glass bead while retaining their air-incident interface so as to maintain the necessary optical relationships for retro-reflective. High intensity grade reflective sheet belongs to this type. Said glass bead are ND1.93 glass bead.

  • 10.“Enclosed-Lens” type retro-reflective articles

    A cover film disposed in front to the glass bead so that said bead do not exposed in air. Engineering Grade and Super Engineering Grade belong to this type. Said glass beads are ND2.2 glass bead

  • 11.“Exposed-Lens” type retro-reflective articles

    Glass beads are on the surface of reflective article and exposed in the air. Reflective fabric, reflective leather, reflective ink and reflective paint belong to this category. Said beads are ND1.9 glass bead

  • 12.What do we mean with “brightness?”

    brightness: An attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to emit a given amount of light. Note 1: "Brightness" should be used only for non quantitative references to physiological sensations and perceptions of light. Note 2: "Brightness" was formerly used as a synonym for the photometric term "luminance" and (incorrectly) for the radiometric term " radiance."

  • 13.What can we say about Radioactivity?

    Emission of energy from an atom's nucleus in the course of its natural or artificial disintegration. Energy is emitted in the form of alpha, beta, and gamma particles (X rays).

  • 14.What is the excitation source?

    Photoluminescence Explained Many inorganic and organic materials exhibit luminescence, which means that they emit visible or invisible light during and after exposure to a source of excitation energy. For photoluminescent materials, the excitation source is electromagnetic radiation-visible and invisible (typically ultraviolet) light.

  • 15.What is Strontium Aluminate pigment?

    Recent research efforts have produced several new inorganic compounds whose photometric characteristics greatly exceed those of zinc sulphide compounds. These materials include oxides of strontium aluminate (identified as SrAl) and other proprietary inorganic compounds. These compounds offer much brighter and longer-lasting photoluminescence, and they can formulate (unlike zinc sulphide compounds) to produce a range of colors. While there are many different strontium aluminate compounds, the following is an example of comparative performance characteristics: properties SrAl ZnS:Cu

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